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Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition

Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition (ODIR) is a structured ophthalmic database of 5,000 patients with age, color fundus photographs from left and right eyes and doctors' diagnostic keywords from doctors A Benchmark of Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition: One Shot for Multi-disease Detection 02/16/2021 ∙ by Ning Li, et al. ∙ 10 ∙ share In ophthalmology, early fundus screening is an economic and effective way to prevent blindness caused by ophthalmic diseases During fundus screening, ophthalmologists usually give diagnoses of multi-disease on binocular fundus image, so we release a dataset with 8 diseases to meet the real medical scene, which contains 10,000 fundus images from both eyes of 5,000 patients. We did some benchmark experiments on it through some state-of-the-art deep neural networks - Ocular Disease Intelligent recognition through deep learning architectures, published by Universitat Oberta de Catalunya in 2020 [ http://openaccess.uoc.edu/webapps/o2/handle/10609/113126 ]. The dissertation PDFs and the dissertation sources are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution license, as described in the LICENSE file arXiv:2102.07978v1 [cs.CV] 16 Feb 2021 A Benchmark of Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition: One Shot for Multi-disease Detection Ning Li1, Tao Li1,2, Chunyu Hu1, Kai Wang1, and Hong Kang1,3 1 College of Computer Science, Nankai university, Tianjin, 300350, China 2 State Key Laboratory of Computer Architecture, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100190, Chin

Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition (ODIR-2019) The purpose of this ODIR challenge is to compare approaches of ophthalmic disease classification in color fundus images A Benchmark of Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition: One Shot for Multi-disease Detection We found simply increasing the scale of network cannot bring good results for multi-disease classification, and a well-structured feature fusion method combines characteristics of multi-disease is needed Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition (ODIR) is a structured ophthalmic database of 5,000 patients with age, color fundus photographs from left and right eyes, and doctors' diagnostic keywords from doctors

Use Case: Ocular Disease Recognition We decided to build an ML model in PerceptiLabs that applies image recognition techniques on fundus images to detect possible cataracts in patients. Using a model like this could help doctors, optometrists, and researchers to more easily classify and detect such conditions @article{, title= {Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition ODIR-5K}, keywords= {}, author= {}, abstract= {We collected a structured ophthalmic database of 5,000 patients with age, color fundus photographs from left and right eyes and doctors' diagnostic keywords from doctors (in short, ODIR-5K)

Request PDF | A Benchmark of Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition: One Shot for Multi-disease Detection | In ophthalmology, early fundus screening is an economic and effective way to prevent. In ophthalmology, early fundus screening is an economic and effective way to prevent blindness caused by ophthalmic diseases. Clinically, due to the lack of medical resources, manual diagnosis is time-consuming and may delay the condition. With the development of deep learning, some researches on ophthalmic diseases have achieved good results, however, most of them are just based on one disease Competition on Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition (ODIR-2019). 1 The dataset contains eight different classification categories, including the normal control group (N) and seven disease groups.

Ocular Disease Recognition Kaggl

  1. g more common for screening, diagnosing and helping treat eye conditions. The technology already is used in online search engines, speech recognition tools and other smart devices. Now, AI is showing promise in healthcare. Massive amounts of data and growing computing power are fueling these.
  2. Major advances in diagnostic technologies are offering unprecedented insight into the condition of the retina and beyond ocular disease. Digital images providing millions of morphological datasets can fast and non-invasively be analyzed in a comprehensive manner using artificial intelligence (AI)
  3. Iris recognition in the presence of ocular disease. Aslam TM (1), Tan SZ, Dhillon B. Author information: (1)Edinburgh Eye Pavilion, Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9HA, UK. taslam@aol.com. Iris recognition systems are among the most accurate of all biometric technologies with immense potential for use in worldwide security applications

Ning Li, Tao Li, Chunyu Hu, Kai Wang and Hong Kang (Nankai university) https://www.benchcouncil.org/bench20/program.htm The intelligent automatic detection system of diabetic retinopathy for diagnostic purposes has been carried out by Mohamed using advanced feed neural networks. At present, a periodic direct ophthalmoscopy examination is the best approach for screening, although it uses low sensitivity ophthalmoscopy

Tao Li - CatalyzeX

Explore and run machine learning code with Kaggle Notebooks | Using data from Ocular Disease Recognition Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition (ODIR-2019) Medical healthcare has been one of the most popular research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI). With the rapid development of AI techniques in recent years, how to effectively apply state-of-the-art approaches to the clinical fields gets much more attention

Detect Eye Diseases With Pytorch. Giuseppe Minardi. Follow. Deep learning today is ubiquitous, it is used in different application, from image classification to speech recognition Abstract Primary care presentations of dry eye disease (DED) are common and pose a diagnostic challenge due to the variety of symptoms and the absence of certainty for family practitioners. While there are many published articles on the topic, the 2017 Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society Dry Eye Workshop was a landmark report in distinguishing multifactorial differences. Redefined terms. Deep Learning Ocular Disease Recognition & Classification with PyTorch APIPrediction for Normal vs Cataract Eye by Using ResNet50 modelu can test it in my we.. Google researchers trained an algorithm to recognize a common form of eye disease as well as many experts can. by . Will Knight archive page; November 29, 2016

TLR4 gene haplotype association with the disease

Primary care presentations of dry eye disease (DED) are common and pose a diagnostic challenge due to the variety of symptoms and the absence of certainty for family practitioners. While there are many published articles on the topic, the 2017 Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society Dry Eye Workshop wa Ophthalmologists diagnose diseases based on pattern recognition through direct or indirect visualization of the eye and its surrounding structures. Dependence on the fundus of the eye and its analysis make the field of ophthalmology perfectly suited to benefit from deep learning algorithms Image Source.. Ocular diseases are extensively-studied in the healthcare world as they affect millions of people. With this in mind, we decided to build an ML model in PerceptiLabs that applies image recognition techniques on fundus images to detect possible cataracts in patients. Using a model like this could help doctors, optometrists, and researchers to more easily classify and detect such. In this paper, an automated eye disease recognition system is designed using various machine learning techniques. In our eye disease recognition system, the human eye part is obtained from the facial image automatically. The first stage is the capturing of image. This procedure is acquired by digital camera. Initially, the origina The rapid development of computer vision technology and digital images has increased the potential for using image recognition for eye disease diagnosis. Many early screening and diagnosis methods for ocular diseases based on retinal images of the fundus have been proposed recently, but their accuracy is low. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate an improved VGG model for the.

Corneal disease is a major cause of reversible blindness worldwide, ranking second only to cataracts 1, with an estimated 6.8 million people in India 2 and 3.2 million in China 3 having corneal. Iris recognition systems are among the most accurate of all biometric technologies with immense potential for use in worldwide security applications. This study examined the effect of eye pathology on iris recognition and in particular whether eye disease could cause iris recognition systems to fail. The experiment involved a prospective cohort.

Abstract. This paper presents an analysis of how iris recognition is influenced by eye disease and an appropriate dataset comprising 2996 images of irises taken from 230 distinct eyes (including 184 affected by more than 20 different eye conditions). The images were collected in near infrared and visible light during routine ophthalmological. practice and an earlier recognition of specialist referrals. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Dry eye disease (DED) poses a diagnostic chal-lenge to primary care physicians. The condition involves the tear/air interface, at the corneal (ocular) surface, where light enters the eye. Any change in light refraction affects regular sight Visual Acuity. Many studies have found no significant difference in visual acuity between AD patients and control subjects ().Levels of luminance may affect visual acuity, as demonstrated in AD patients who had decreased visual acuity under conditions of low luminance (LL) (41, 42).A recent study has shown that AD patients have a significantly poorer accuracy and ability in recognition of.

Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition Through Deep

Walmart has been installing facial recognition cameras at eye level in the entrances of their new store fronts for some time now. These cameras not only have the ability to cross reference you with social media networks to put a name with the face, but utilzes software that has the ability to ascertain a great many things about the environment. How much exactly is unknown, but in the video on. HZO Warrants Quick Recognition & Action A rare combination of ophthalmoplegia, panuveitis and optic neuritis from herpes zoster emphasizes the need for prompt diagnosis and action. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a relatively common disease that often affects elderly population with rare, but devastating intraocular, neuro-ophthalmic.

arXiv:2102.07978v1 [cs.CV] 16 Feb 202

  1. Ocular pathology detection from fundus images presents an important challenge on health care. In fact, each pathology has different severity stages that may be deduced by verifying the existence of specific lesions. Each lesion is characterized by morphological features. Moreover, several lesions of different pathologies have similar features. We note that patient may be affected.
  2. The most common microvascular complication of the disease is development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME), which is the leading cause of blindness in the working-age population globally. 4 In order to prevent potentially permanent vision loss, early recognition and timely referral for treatment of vision-threatening.
  3. Whether you or someone you love has cancer, knowing what to expect can help you cope. From basic information about cancer and its causes to in-depth information on specific cancer types - including risk factors, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment options - you'll find it here
  4. With the rapid development of intelligent agriculture and precision agriculture, computer image processing technology has been widely used to solve various problems in the agricultural field. In particular, the advantages of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in image classification have also been widely used in the automatic recognition and classification of plant diseases
  5. Erythema multiforme is an immune-mediated reaction that involves the skin and sometimes the mucosa. Classically described as target-like, the erythema multiforme lesions can be isolated, recurrent.
  6. FDA permits marketing of first medical device to use artificial intelligence to detect greater than a mild level of diabetic retinopathy in the eye of adults who have diabetes

Automatic disease detection systems based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are proposed in this paper for helping the medical professionals in the detection of diseases from scan and X-ray images. CNN based classification helps decision making in a prompt manner with high precision. CNNs are a subset of deep learning which is a branch of Artificial Intelligence Intelligent transportation system needs to solve the main problems in traffic safety. This paper focuses on the traffic safety caused by fatigue driving based on image recognition of key technologies for research and analysis. This paper proposes that the location of face and facial feature points and the classification of fatigue detection are the key links to determine the fatigue driving.

Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition (ODIR-2019) - GitHu

  1. Iris recognition is envisioned as one of the most accurate biometric authentication method and evaluated in the most impressive biometric projects worldwide, including generation of the unique identification numbers for the population of India, ADHAAR [], or Canadian border control system CANPASS [].However, the eye and iris - like any other human organs - may suffer from various diseases.
  2. Recognition of Canine Ocular Diseases Hardcover - January 1, 2014 by Jr. DJ Haeussler (Author) 4.4 out of 5 stars 5 ratings. This photo atlas contains 629 pictures with diagnoses and clinical descriptions of a wide range of ocular diseases of dogs. Many of these images are common diseases seen in general practice on a routine basis
  3. Home Conferences RICAI Proceedings RICAI 2020 Research on Light Path Switching and Adjustment Mechanism of Ocular Surface and Fundus Photography for TCM Liver Disease Eye Diagnostic Instrument research-articl

Ocular Disease Recognition Using Convolutional Neural

  1. They made a database of nearly 130,000 skin disease images and trained their algorithm to visually diagnose potential cancer. From the very first test, it performed with inspiring accuracy
  2. ation module for a quality evaluation to indicate whether the image goes to an iris recognition module and/or a trace transform module. The trace transform may also be used as a pre-filtering mechanism to deter
  3. Lee believes AI can help — not just people with AMD, but those with eye diseases that cause vision loss. GPU-accelerated deep learning may be able to detect signs of disease that doctors miss, or speed diagnosis so doctors can start treatments sooner, he said. He's already developed deep learning algorithms that spot AMD and macular edema.
  4. Intelligent Heart Disease Recognition using Neural Networks 1. 24th Annual Multi-topic International Symposium IEEEP Karachi 2009 Intelligent Heart Disease Recognition using Neural Networks Engr. Dileep Kumar Dr. Bhawani Shanker Chowdhry Engr. Attiya Baqai Engr. Bhagwandas Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro Pakista
  5. Sarcoidosis may cause skin problems, which may include: A rash of red or reddish-purple bumps, usually located on the shins or ankles, which may be warm and tender to the touch. Disfiguring sores (lesions) on the nose, cheeks and ears. Areas of skin that are darker or lighter in color

Use Case: Ocular Disease Recognitio

Recognition and Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)-Related Eye Disease. Fig. 11.1. Lax eyelid condition (LEC) in nonobese patient (Case 1) with sleep apnea (peak 70 s without breathing) In discussing the nature of the ocular surface disease and its management with the patient, an important step is to address the patient's expectations The symptoms that occur in thyroid eye disease include dry eyes, watery eyes, red eyes, bulging eyes, a stare, double vision, difficulty closing the eyes, and problems with vision. Research suggests that the cause of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune disorder. An imbalance or recognition problem occurs in the immune system Inflammatory eye diseases. This section considers articles on all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of inflammatory eye diseases as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology and epidemiology. Prospective clinical studies, especially randomized controlled trials are particularly welcome. Page 1 of 2

Eye Gaze Strategies During Facial Emotion Recognition in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Links With Neuropsychiatric Disorders (EYE-ToM Study) (EYE-ToM) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government Primary care presentations of dry eye disease (DED) are common and pose a diagnostic challenge due to the variety of symptoms and the absence of certainty for family practitioners. While there are many published articles on the topic, the 2017 Tea

The human retina is a thin tissue made up of neural cells that is located in the posterior portion of the eye.Because of the complex structure of the capillaries that supply the retina with blood, each person's retina is unique, making retinal scans an emerging authentication method. The network of blood vessels in the retina is not entirely genetically determined and thus even identical twins. Diabetic Eye Disease. Diabetic eye disease, also known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by complications from diabetes. The blood vessels in the back of the eye can leak blood and fluid, which leads to blurred/distorted vision, dark spots, and the feeling of pressure in the eye. Taking proper care of your diabetes can help you avoid this problem Main Outcomes Measures: Subjective (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI) and objective (corrected distance visual acuity, conjunctival hyperemia, tear osmolarity, Schirmer's test, corneal/conjunctival staining and matrix metalloproteinase-9) variables were measured pre- and post Journal of Eye Diseases and Disorders is an open access journal that captures the latest research and innovation in the eye care that enable early diagnosis, prevention and cure of the eye diseases and disorders. Journal of Eye Diseases and Disorders caters to the needs of ophthalmologists, retina specialists, endocrinologists, clinical. Adermatoglyphia is an extremely rare genetic disorder that causes a person to have no fingerprints. People with this disorder have completely smooth fingertips, palms, toes, and soles. Although fingerprint patterns may tend to change over time, these changes are typically very gradual except for instances involving severe accidents

Ocular Disease Intelligent Recognition ODIR-5K - Academic

GARD maintains a list of rare diseases and related terms to help people find reliable information. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as one that affects fewer than 200,000 people. The prevalence of a rare disease usually is an estimate and may change over time. Inclusion in GARD's list does not serve as official recognition by the. To check for retinal disease, a dilated eye exam is usually necessary. Make an appointment with a doctor who specializes in eye care — an optometrist or an ophthalmologist. He or she can perform a complete eye exam. What you can do. Before your appointment: When you make the appointment, ask if you need to do anything to prepare Chronic diseases are gradually becoming the main threat to human health. By designing an efficient hospital management platform to quickly identify the corresponding chronic diseases, it can effectively reduce the labor cost, improve the accuracy of disease identification, and improve treatment efficiency. ADHD is a common behavioral disorder in school-age children, and it is also one of the. GENERAL INFORMATION. Due to the force majeure situation and in order to ensure the correct progress of the planned tasks of EJP RD, ISS ensures that the international course International Summer School on Rare Disease Registries and FAIRification of Data, September 27 - October 1, 2021, ISS, Rome will be held ONLINE. Tweet

(PDF) Multi-label ocular disease classification with a

Many eye diseases like cataracts, trachoma, corneal ulcer, etc. can cause vision problem. Progression of these 4 eye diseases can only be prevented if they are recognized accurately at the early stage. Visually observable symptoms 5 differ a lot among these eye diseases. However, a wide variety of symptoms is necessary to analyze for the accurate 6 detection of eye diseases Research Article AVideo-Based Intelligent Recognition and Decision System for the Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery ShuTian, 1 Xu-ChengYin, 1 Zhi-BinWang, 2 FangZhou, 1 andHong-WeiHao 3 Department of Computer Science and Technology, School of Computer and Communication Engineering Amazon.com: The Recognition of Ocular Disease: A Treatise for Opticians (Classic Reprint) (9781332184859): Forrest, James: Book The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit.

Influence of eye diseases on the retina pattern recognition 1Emil Saeed, 2Anna Bartocha, 3Piotr Wachulec, 4,5Khalid Saeed 1 Department of Ophthalmology , Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok Poland 2, 3, 4 Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH UST in Krakow, Poland 5 Faculty of Computer Science, Bialystok University of Technology, Polan The disease affected eyes usually several problems in eye to affected the like but iris wont affect frequently but when iritis and iridocyclitis these disease which affect the iris. The following figure shows the both normal eye and disease affected eye is shown in fig. 2 and fig. 3 Fig2. Normal eye Fig3

U.S. health regulators said on Wednesday it will allow sale of the first medical device that uses artificial intelligence (AI) software to detect greater than a mild level of the most common cause. Iris / Eye Recognition. The human eye offers a number of opportunities for biometric identification. This includes measurements of the iris, eye veins and retina. Systems using eye scanning, typically for iris recognition, are widely deployed for identification and verification at government and law enforcement levels, but are also beginning to. Eye Diseases. The diseases or a disorder that destroy eye tissue and other parts of eyes can be referred to as the eye diseases. There are different types of eye diseases, which can either be minor, which doesn't last for a longer time or some can also lead to a permanent loss of vision eOpthalmologist -Intelligent Eye Disease Diagnosis System Manoujitha Kugamourthy Department of Computing Informatics Institute of technology in affiliation with simplifies the process of recognition and classification. Optic Disk is located with this Thresholding. Thresholding 340 Inherited eye diseases are common in purebred animals, especially dogs. They affect the eye, and, because of breed/species-specific conformational standards, the affect the eye secondarily as a result of abnormal shape and/or conformation of the eyelids and other extraocular structures

Artificial Intelligence Trends in Eye Care - American

Thyroid-associated eye disease was present in 44 (6%) of the 700 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Compared to the patients without thyroid-associated eye disease, those with thyroid-associated eye disease tended to be older (49.3 yr vs. 35.2 yr); have a longer duration of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (2.4 yr vs. 0.9 yr), were heavier smokers, and were less likely to present with another. This smart toilet recognizes your butt and analyzes poo for diseases. An experimental toilet out of Stanford University identifies users by their finger and anal prints while gathering data for. Among the functions one expects from incorporating machine vision to projects, many go far beyond the capabilities of simple sensors: Frame Differencing, Color & Marker Tracking, Face Detection & Eye Tracking, QR Code & Barcode recognition and more Tears maintain the health of the front surface of the eye and provide clear vision. Dry eye is a common and often chronic problem, particularly in older adults. Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by damage to the optic nerve resulting in loss of peripheral (side) vision. It often affects both eyes, typically one eye before the other

AI In Your Eye: Army Goggles Will ID Targets Automatically. DETROIT: Army soldiers are testing goggles with an image-recognition system that can automatically spot threats like tanks and warn the. Eye movement characterization during gait for Parkinson's Disease Recognition David R. Trujillo R. Thesis presented as partial requirement for the degree of: Master in Biomedical Engineering Advisor: Eduardo Romero Castro. MD. MsC. Ph.D. Research Area: Parkinson's Disease, Movement Analysis Cim@Lab Research Group Universidad Nacional de.

Artificial intelligence in retina - PubMe

The image recognition market is estimated to grow from USD 15.95 Billion in 2016 to USD 38.92 Billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 19.5% between 2016 and 2021.Advancements in machine learning and use of high bandwidth data services is fueling the growth of this technology Xerophthalmia is a progressive eye disease which begins with night blindness. If vitamin A deficiency continues, your tear ducts and eyes can dry out. Eventually, your cornea softens, resulting in. Intelligent Classifiers Fusion for Enhancing Recognition of Genes and Protein Pattern of Hereditary Diseases: 10.4018/978-1-61350-435-2.ch010: Most the objective of intelligent systems is to create a model, which given a minimum amount of input data or information, is able to produce reliabl

Iris recognition in the presence of ocular disease

New applications of AI in the form of deep learning are helping healthcare practitioners detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) earlier and more accurately. DR is a serious eye disease associated with long-standing diabetes that results in progressive damage to the retina, eventually leading to blindness Intelligent Classifiers Fusion for Enhancing Recognition of Genes and Protein Pattern of Hereditary Diseases: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3604-.ch082: Most the objective of intelligent systems is to create a model, which given a minimum amount of input data or information, is able to produce reliabl

Ning Li A Benchmark of Ocular Disease Intelligent

Insert a tiny needle into your eye and remove a small amount of fluid. Inject a small amount of air into your eye. Use laser or freeze treatment to repair any holes or tears in your retina. You'll be able to see the air bubble in your peripheral (side) vision after the surgery. The bubble will disappear on its own over time A display for facial recognition and artificial intelligence is seen on monitors at Huawei's Bantian campus on April 26, 2019 in Shenzhen, China. China's seemingly unfettered push into facial.

Deep learning approach for classification of eye diseases

The healthcare industry collects huge amounts of healthcare data which, unfortunately, are not ;mined; to discover hidden information for effective decision making. Discovery of hidden patterns and relationships often goes unexploited. Advanced data mining techniques can help remedy this situation. This research has developed a prototype Intelligent Heart Disease Prediction System (IHDPS. Facial recognition technology has been used by police in the U.K. since 1998, but its effectiveness in controlled environments has increased significantly in the past few years thanks to the significant increase in the availability of labeled facial images from social media and a new generation of computers with increased processing power

Ocular Disease Recognition EDA Kaggl

An ophthalmoscope is an instrument used for examining the interior structures of the eye, especially the retina, consisting of a mirror that reflects light into the eye and a central hole through which the eye is examined. A binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO) is worn on an eye doctor's head in order to have the use of both hands to examine. Current eye-tracking technologies, however, cannot detect subtle disruptions in eye-motion that may be associated with early disease states That was the motivation for the new eye-tracking system. Intelligent Retinal Imaging Systems (IRIS) announced a partnership with Remidio Innovative Solutions to bring their smartphone based non-mydriatic fundus camera to the U.S. market. Coupling the IR Intelligent Retinal Imaging Systems (IRIS) Partners with Remidio Innovative Solutions to Provide Early Detection Systems for Diabetic Eye Disease.

Making your robot intelligent. Microsoft Bot Framework and Cognitive Services provide a platform to develop intelligent bots. By adding cognitive services to the bot, we are able to make our bot smart and have capabilities like language understanding, image recognition, text recognition, translation, and more Clinical trials. Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.. Coping and support Coping with vision changes. If your cancer treatment causes total loss of vision in one eye, such as happens when an eye is removed, it's still possible to do most things you were able to do with two working eyes The world's first adaptive intelligent recognition skin impedance 4MHZ high-efficiency RF, this technology is mainly through the front of the operating head to contact the human skin, according to each person's skin impedance (including the full impedance with resistance and capacitance), 4MHz energy can be stable and continuous transfered to any customer and not depleted